References

What We Do

 

1. Birch, J., Burn, C., Schnell, A., Browning, H., and Crump, A. (2021). Review of the Evidence of Sentience in Cephalopod Molluscs and Decapod Crustaceans. The London School of Economics and Political Science. 

What's The Problem?

 

1. New Zealand Government. (1999). Animal Welfare Act. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1999/0142/latest/DLM49664.html. Accessed 29 April 2016.

2. Michigan State University. (2011). Norwegian Animal Welfare Act. https://www.animallaw.info/statute/noway-cruelty-norwegian-animal-welfare-act-2010#s2. Animal Legal & Historical Centre. Accessed 29 April 2016.

Do Decapod Crustaceans Feel Pain?

 
  1. Elwood, R. (2019). Discrimination between nociceptive reflexes and more complex responses consistent with pain in crustaceans. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B374:20190368.http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.036. 

  2. Elwood, R. W., and Adams, L. (2015). Electric shock causes physiological stress responses in shore crabs, consistent with prediction of pain. Biology letters, 11 (11), 20150800. 

  3. Braithwaite, V. (2010). Do fish feel pain? OUP Oxford. 

  4. Elwood, R. W., Barr, S., and Patterson, L. (2009). Pain and stress in crustaceans? Applied animal behaviour science, 118 (3), 128-136. 

  5. Dyuizen, I.V., Kotsyuba, E.P., and Lamash, N. E. (2012). Changes in the nitric oxide system in the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Crustacea, decapoda) CNS induced by a nociceptive stimulus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215 (15), 2668-2676. 

  6. Barr, S., Laming, P.R., Dick, J.T.A., and Elwood, R. (2008). Nociception or pain in a decapod crustacean? Animal Behaviour, 75(3), 745–751. 

  7. Magee, B., and Elwood, R. W. (2016). Trade-offs between predator avoidance and electric shock avoidance in hermit crabs demonstrate a non-reflexive response to noxious stimuli consistent with prediction of pain. Behavioural Processes, 130, 31-35. 

  8. Appel, M., and Elwood, R.W. (2009b). Motivational trade-offs and the potential for pain experience in hermit crabs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 119, 120-124. 

  9. Diarte-Plata, G., Sainz-Hernández, J.C., Aguiñaga-Cruz, J.A., Fierro-Coronado, J.A., Polanco-Torres, A., and Puente-Palazuelos, C. (2012). Eyestalk ablation procedures to minimize pain in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium americanum. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104 (3-4), 172-178. 

  10. Maldonado, H., and Miralto, A. (1982). Effect of morphine and naloxone on a defensive response of the mantis shrimp (Squilla mantis). Journal of comparative physiology, 147 (4), 455-459. 

  11. Fernandez-Duque, E., Valeggia, C., and Maldonado, H. (1992). Multitrial inhibitory avoidance learning in the crab chasmagnathus. Behavioural and Neural Biology, 57 (3), 189-197. 

  12. Gheradi, F., and Atema, J. (2005). Memory of social partners in hermit crab dominance. Ethology 111, 271–285. 

  13. Magee, B., and Elwood, R. W. (2013). Shock avoidance by discrimination learning in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is consistent with a key criterion for pain. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216 (3), 353-358. 

  14. Magee, B., and Elwood, R. (2016b). No discrimination shock avoidance with sequential presentation of stimuli but shore crabs still reduce shock exposure. 5, 883-888, doi:10.1242/bio.019216. 

  15. Appel, M., and Elwood, R.W. (2009a). Gender differences, responsiveness and memory of a potentially painful event in hermit crabs. Animal Behaviour, 78 (6), 1373-1379. 

  16. Broom, D.M., and Johnson, K.G. (2019). Stress and Animal Welfare, 2nd ed.; Springer: Berlin, Germany. 

  17. Fossat, P., Bacqué-Cazenave, J., De Deurwaerdère, P., Delbecque, J. P., and Cattaert, D. (2014). Anxiety-like behavior in crayfish is controlled by serotonin. Science, 344(6189), 1293-1297. 

  18. Reisinger, A., Reisinger, L., Richmond, E., and Rosi, E. (2021). Exposure to a common antidepressant alters crayfish behavior and has potential subsequent ecosystem impacts. Ecosphere 12(6):e03527. 10.1002/ecs2.3527 

  19. Albert, J.L., and Ellington, W.R. (1985). Patterns of energy-metabolism in the stone crab, Menippe mercenaria, during severe hypoxia and subsequent recovery. Journal of Experimental Zoology 234, 175–183. 

  20. Patterson, L., Dick, J. T., and Elwood, R. W. (2007). Physiological stress responses in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus, to the fishery practice of de-clawing. Marine Biology, 152 (2), 265- 272. 

  21. Aparicio-Simón, B., Piñón, M., Racotta, R., and Racotta, I.S. (2010). Neuroendocrine and metabolic responses of Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute handling stress. Aquaculture, 298(3-4), 308-314.

Humane Stunning and Slaughter of Decapods

 

1. Roth, B., and Øines, S. (2010). Stunning and killing of edible crabs (Cancer pagurus). Animal Welfare, 19(3), 287-294.

2. Roth, B., and Grimsbø, E. (2016). Electrical stunning of edible crabs (Cancer pagurus): from single experiments to commercial practice. Animal Welfare, 25, 489-497.

3. Fregin, T., and Bickmeyer, U. (2016). Electrophysiological Investigation of Different Methods of Anesthesia in Lobster and Crayfish. PLoS ONE, 11(9): e0162894.doi.10.1371/journal.pone.0162894

4. Weineck, K., Ray, A., Fleckenstein, L., Medley, M., Dzubuk, N., Piana, E., and Cooper, R. (2018). Physiological Changes as a Measure of Crustacean Welfare under Different Standardised Stunning Techniques: Cooling and Electroshock. Animals, 8(9), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8090158.

5. Mood, A. (2014). Welfare during Killing of Crabs, Lobsters and Crayfish. Fish Count. http://fishcount.org.uk/welfare-of-crustaceans/welfare-during-killing-of-crabs-lobsters-and-crayfish (accessed on 1 July 2021).

Mutilations: Eyestalk Ablation, Declawing & Claw Nicking

 
  1. Rowe, A. (2018). Should scientific research involving decapod crustaceans require ethical review? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 31(5), 625-634.

  2. Diarte-Plata, G., Sainz-Hernández, J.C., Aguiñaga-Cruz, J.A., Fierro-Coronado, J.A., Polanco-Torres, A.,  and Puente-Palazuelos, C. (2012). Eyestalk ablation procedures to minimize pain in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium americanum. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104 (3-4), 172-178.

  3. Taylor, J., Vinatea, L., Ozorio, R., Schuweitzer, R., and Andreatta, E.R. (2004). Minimizing the effects of  stress during eyestalk ablation of Litopenaeus vannamei females with topical anesthetic and a  coagulating agent. Aquaculture, 233(1-4), 173-179.

  4. Bae, S-H., Tomoyuki, O., Bong, J.K., and Wilder, M.N. (2013). Alterations of pattern in immune response and vitellogenesis during induced ovarian development by unilateral and bilateral ablation in Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Science, 79, 895–903.

  5. Sainz-Hernandez, J.C., Racotta, I.S., Silvie, D., and Hernandez-Lopez. J. (2008). Effect of unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation in Litopenaeus vannamei male and female on several metabolic and immunologic variables. Aquaculture  283(1-4), 188-193. 

  6. Luciane, M., Perazzolo, L.M., Gargioni, R., Ogliari, P., Margherita A.A., and Barracco, M.A.A. (2002). Evaluation of some hemato-immunological parameters in the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis submitted to environmental and physiological stress. Aquaculture 214, 19–33 

  7. Zacarias, S., Carboni, S., Davie, A., and Little, D.C. (2019). Reproductive performance and offspring quality of non-ablated Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under intensive commercial scale conditions. Aquaculture, 503, 460-466. 

  8. Seajoy. (2016). Non Ablation. Available at: https://www.seajoy.com/index.php/sustainable/non-ablation. Accessed 30 July 2021.

  9. Patterson, L., Dick, J.T.A., and Elwood, R.W. (2007). Physiological stress responses in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus, to the fishery practice of de-clawing. Marine Biology 152, 265-272 

  10. Patterson, L., Dick, J.T.A., and Elwood, R.W. (2009). Claw removal and feeding ability in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus: Implications for fishery practice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116, 302-305 

  11. McCambridge, C., Dick, J.T.A, and Elwood, R.W. (2016). Effects of autotomy compared to manual declawing on contests between males for females in the edible crab Cancer pagurus: implications for fishery practice and animal welfare. Journal of Shellfish Research 35(4), 1037-1044.

  12. Duermit, E., Kingsley-Smith, P.R., and Wilber, D.H. (2015). The Consequences of Claw Removal on Stone Crabs Menippe spp. and the Ecological and Fishery Implications. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 35, 895–905. 

  13. Davis, G.E., Baughman, D.S., Chapman, J.D., MacArthur, D., and Pierce, A.C. (1978). Mortality associated with declawing stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria. South Florida Research Center. National Park Service, Report T-552. 20 pp.

  14. Fotedar, S., and Evans, L. (2011). Health management during handling and live transport of crustaceans: a review. Journal of invertebrate pathology, 106(1), 143-152. 

  15. Jacklin, M., and Combes, J. (2007). The good practice guide to handling and storing live Crustacea. Sea Fish Industry Authority Publication.

  16. Coppola, C., Tirloni, E., Vasconi, M., Anastasio, A., Stella, S., and Bernardi, C. (2019). The effects of claw ligatures in American lobster (Homarus americanus) storage: a preliminary study of haemolymph parameters. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 88(3), 329-335.

  17. Welsh, J. E., King, P. A., and MacCarthy, E. (2013). Pathological and physiological effects of nicking on brown crab (Cancer pagurus) in the Irish crustacean fishery. Journal of invertebrate pathology, 112(1), 49-56. 

  18. Barrento, S., Marques, A., Vaz-Pires, P., and Nunes, M.L. (2010). Live shipment of immersed crabs Cancer pagurus from England to Portugal and recovery in stocking tanks: stress parameter characterization. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67(3), 435-443.

  19. Barrento, S., Marques, A., Pedro, S., Vaz-Pires, P., and Nunes, M.L. (2008). The trade of live crustaceans in Portugal: space for technological improvements. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65(4), 551-559.

  20. Johnson, L., Coates, C.J., Albalat, A., Todd, K., and Neil, D. (2016). Temperature-dependent morbidity of ‘nicked’ edible crab, Cancer pagurus. Fisheries Research, 175, 127-131.

  21. Chartois, H., Latrouite, D., and Le Carre, P. (1994). Stocking and transportation of live crustaceans. Report of the Directorate of Live Resources. IFREMER, Brest, France. 65 pp. 

  22. Carder, G. (2017). A preliminary investigation into the welfare of lobsters in the UK. Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling, 2(16), 19.  

  23. Esposito, G., Nucera, D., and Meloni, D. (2018). Retail Stores Policies for Marketing of Lobsters in Sardinia (Italy) as Influenced by Different Practices Related to Animal Welfare and Product Quality. Foods, 7(7), 103. Chicago.

Capture, Transport & Storage

 
  1. Fotedar, S., and Evans, L. (2011). Health management during handling and live transport of crustaceans: a review. Journal of invertebrate pathology, 106(1), 143-152. 

  2. Dong, Z., Mao, S., Chen, Y., Ge, H., Li, X., Wu, X., Liu, D., Zhang, K., Bai, C., and Zhang, Q. (2019). Effects of air-exposure stress on the survival rate and physiology of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. Aquaculture, 500, 429-434. 

  3. James, P., Izquierdo‐Gómez, D., and Siikavuopio, S.I. (2019). Use of reflex indicators for measuring vitality and mortality of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in captivity. Aquaculture research, 50(4), 1321-1328. 

  4. Barrento, S., Marques, A., Vaz-Pires, P., and Nunes, M.L. (2011). Cancer pagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) physiological responses to simulated live transport: Influence of temperature, air exposure and AQUI-S. Journal of Thermal Biology 36, 128–137. 

  5. Barrento, S., Marques, A., Vaz‐Pires, P., and Nunes, M. L. (2012). Physiological changes during simulated live transport of Cancer pagurus and recovery in holding tanks. Aquaculture Research, 43(10), 1415-1426. 

  6. Fotedar, S., Tsvetnenko, E., and Evans, L. (2001). Effect of air exposure on the immune system of the rock lobster Panulirus cygnus. Marine and Freshwater Research, 52(8), 1351-1355. 

  7. Raicevich, S., Giomi, F., Pranovi, F., Giovanardi, O., Di Muro, P., and Beltramini, M. (2011). Onset of and recovery from physiological stress in Liocarcinus depurator after trawling and air exposure under different seasonal conditions. Hydrobiologia, 664(1), 107-118. 

  8. Wickins J.F., and Lee, O.C. (2002). Crustacean farming. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK. 446 pp. 

  9. Siikavuopio, S.I., Johansson, G.S., James, P., and Lorentzen, G. (2019b). Effect of starvation on the survival, injury, and weight of adult snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. Aquaculture Research, 50(2), 550-556. 

  10. Beard, T. W., & McGregor, D. (2004). Storage and care of live lobsters. Laboratory Leaflet (Revised), 66 (66), 1–27. 

  11. Carder, G. (2017). A preliminary investigation into the welfare of lobsters in the UK. Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling, 2(16), 19. 

  12. Bennison, S. (2000). Guidelines on Aquatic Animal Welfare for the Aquaculture Industry in Western Australia. ACWA. 

  13. Barrento, S., Marques, A., Vaz-Pires, P., and Nunes, M. L. (2010). Live shipment of immersed crabs Cancer pagurus from England to Portugal and recovery in stocking tanks: stress parameter characterization. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67(3), 435-443. 

  14. Esposito, G., Nucera, D., and Meloni, D. (2018). Retail Stores Policies for Marketing of Lobsters in Sardinia (Italy) as Influenced by Different Practices Related to Animal Welfare and Product Quality. Foods 7(7), 103. Chicago. 

  15. D’Agaro, E., Sabbioni, V., Messina, M., Tibaldi, E., Bongiorno, T., Tulli, F., Lippe,G., Fabbro, F., and Stecchini, M. (2014). Effect of confinement and starvation on stress parameters in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Italian Journal of Animal Science 13, 891-896.